– the intergovernmental organization through which Member States act together
     on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
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Time and frequency: Recent BIPM publications in the scientific literature

Periodic publications:

The BIPM Time Department produces the following regular publications:

Several publications and data files on time scales are available on-line from the Time Department's FTP server.


  • Jiang Z., Zhang V., Huang Y.-I., Achkar J., Piester D., Lin S.-Y., Wu W., Naumov A., Yang S.-h., Nawrocki J., Sesia I., Schlunegger C., Yang Z., Fujieda M., Czubla A., Esteban H., Rieck C., Whibberley P., Use of software-defined radio receivers in two-way satellite time and frequency transfers for UTC computation, Metrologia, 2018, 55(5), 685-698
  • Liang K., Arias F., Petit G., Jiang Z., Tisserand L., Wang Y., Yang Z., Zhang A., Evaluation of BeiDou time transfer over multiple inter-continental baselines towards UTC contribution, Metrologia, 2018, 55(4), 513-525
  • Müller J., Dirkx D., Kopeikin S.M., Lion G., Panet I., Petit G., Visser P.N.A.M., High performance clocks and gravity field determination, Space Sci Rev., 2018, 214(5),


  • Denker H., Timmen L., Voigt C., Weyers S., Peik E., Delva P., Wolf P., Petit G., Geodetic methods to determine the relativistic redshift at the level of 10-18 in the context of international timescales - A review and practical results, J. Geodesy, 2017, 92(5), 487-516
  • Hachisu H., Petit G., Nakagawa F., Hanado Y., Ido T, SI-traceable measurement of an optical frequency at the low 10-16 level without a local primary standard, Opt. Express, 2017, 25, 8511-8523
  • Hachisu, H., Petit G., Ido T., Absolute frequency measurement with uncertainty below 1×10-15 using International Atomic Time, Appl. Phys. B, 2017, 123(1),
  • Jiang Z, Lin S.-Y., Tseng W.-H., Fully and optimally use the redundancy in a TWSTFT network for accurate time transfer, Proc. ETFT-IFCS2017, 2017, 367-380
  • Jiang Z., Arias F.E., Pilot study on the validation of the Software-Defined Radio Receiver for TWSTFT -- BIPM contribution to the validation of the SDR for TWSTFT, Proc. PTTI 2017, 2017,
  • Jiang Z., Matsakis D., Zhang V., Long-term instability in UTC time links, Proc. PTTI 2017, 2017,
  • Jiang Z., Zhang V., Parker T.E., Yao J., Huang Y.-J., Lin S.-Y., Accurate TWSTFT time transfer with indirect links, Proc. PTTI 2017, 2017,
  • Liang K., Zhang A., Yang Z., Tisserand L., Jiang Z., Petit G., Arias E.F., Experimental research on BeiDou time transfer using the NIM made GNSS time and frequency receivers at the BIPM in Euro-Asia link, Proc. ETFT-IFCS2017, 2017, 788-797
  • Liang K., Zhang A., Yang Z., Wang J.-L., Lin H.T., Wang Y., Yang F., Yang J., Gotoh T., Cai Z., Jiang Z., Mou W., UTC time link calibration in the frame of APMP - Campaigns in 2014-2016, Proc. ETFT-IFCS2017, 2017, 826-834
  • Lin S.Y., Jiang Z., GPS All in View Time Comparison using Multireceiver Ensemble, Proc. ETFT-IFCS2017, 2017, 362-365
  • Petit G., Leute J., Sub 10-16 frequency transfer with IPPP: Recent results, Proc. 2017 Joint EFTF/IFCS, 2017, 784-787


  • Jiang Z., Final report of the BIPM Pilot Study on UTC time link calibration, Proc. 47th PTTI meeting, Monterey, 2016, 20-26
  • Jiang Z., Matsakis D., Zhang V., Esteban H., Piester D., Lin S.Y., Dierikx E., A TWSTFT calibration guideline and the use of a GPS calibrator for UTC TWSTFT link calibrations, Proc. 47th PTTI meeting, Monterey, 2016, 231-242
  • Petit G., Defraigne P., The performance of GPS time and frequency transfer: comment on 'A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques', Metrologia, 2016, 53(3), 1003-1008
  • Riedel F., Petit G., et al, Remote optical and fountain clock comparison using broadband TWSTFT and GPS PPP, Proc. 30th EFTF meeting, York, 2016,


  • Esteban H., Galindo J., Bauch A., Polewka T., Cerretto G., Costa R., Whibberley P., Uhrich P., Chupin B., Jiang Z., GPS Time Link Calibrations in the Frame of EURAMET Project 1156, Proc. EFTF/IFCS 2015, 2015, 649-654
  • Fey A.L., Arias F.E., et al., The second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame by Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Astron. J., 2015, 150(2),
  • Jiang Z., Czubla A., Nawrocki J., Lewandowski W., Arias E.F., Comparing a GPS time link calibration with an optical fibre self-calibration with 200 ps accuracy, Metrologia, 2015, 52(2), 384-391
  • Luzum B., Petit G., et al., IAU Working Group for Numerical Standards of Fundamental Astronomy (NSFA): Past efforts and future endeavors, IAU General Assembly, 2015,
  • Petit G., Kanj A., Loyer S., Delporte J., Mercier F., Perosanz F., 1 × 10-16 frequency transfer by GPS PPP with integer ambiguity resolution, Metrologia, 2015, 52(2), 301-309


  • Jiang Z., Total delay and total uncertainty in UTC time link calibration, Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2014, 112-125
  • Jiang Z., Lewandowski W., Evolution of the uncertainty of [UTC-UTC(k)], Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2014, 208-216
  • Konaté H., Arias E.F., The BIPM Time Department Database, Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2014, 1-13
  • Panfilo G., Harmegnies A., Tisserand L., Arias E.F., The algorithm for the generation of UTC : latest improvements, Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2014, 274-291
  • Petit G., A timescale based on the world's fountain clocks, Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2014, 265-268


  • Panfilo G., Harmegnies A., Tisserand L., Arias E.F., The algorithm for the generation of UTC: latest improvements, Proc. 45th PTTI Meeting, 2013,


  • Arias F., Harmegnies A., Jiang Z., Konaté H., Lewandowski W., Panfilo G., Petit G. and Tisserand L., UTCr: a rapid realization of UTC, Proc. EFTF 2012, 2012, 24-27
  • Bauch A., Beutler G. and Petit G., Time and Frequency Metrology and its use for Navigation: Status and Proposed Future Research Themes, Galileo Science Advisory Committee, 2012,
  • Jiang Z., Lewandowski W., Panfilo G. and Petit G., Reevaluation of the measurement uncertainty of the UTC time transfer, Proc. 43rd PTTI Meeting 2011, 2012, 133-140
  • Jiang Z., Matsakis D., Mitchell S., Breakiron L., Bauh A., Piester D., Maeno H., Bernier L.G, Long-term instability of GPS-based time transfer and proposals for improvements, Proc. 43rd PTTI Meeting 2011, 2012, 387-406
  • Liard J., Pálinkáš V., Jiang Z., The self-attraction effect in absolute gravimeters and its influence on CIPM key comparisons, Rapport BIPM-2012/01, 12 pp
  • Panfilo G., The new prediction algorithm for UTC: application and results, Proc. EFTF 2012, 2012, 242-246


  • Bauch A., Piester D., Fujieda M., Lewandowski W., Directive for operational use and data handling in two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT), Rapport BIPM-2011/01, 25 pp
  • Jiang Z., Lewandowski W., On the measurement quality of UTC time transfer: Evolution and reevaluation of measurement uncertainty in [UTCUTC(k)], Rapport BIPM-2011/07, 16 pp


  • Jiang Z., Interpolation of TW time transfer from measured points onto standard MJD for UTC generation, Proc. EFTF, 2010,
  • Jiang Z., Arias F., Lewandowski W., Petit G., Toward new procedures in TWSTFT and GNSS delay characterization for UTC time transfer?, Proc. EFTF, 2010,
  • Jiang Z., Piester D., Liang K., Restoring a TWSTFT calibration with a GPS bridge – A standard procedure for UTC time transfer, Proc. EFTF 2010, 2010,
  • Lewandowski W., Tisserand L., Relative characterization of GPS time equipment delays at the OP, AOS, GUM, LT, TP, BEV, OMH, NIMB, NMC, and ZMDM, Rapport BIPM-2010/02, 27 pp
  • Lewandowski W., Tisserand L., Relative characterization of GPS time equipment delays at the OP, PTB, AOS, USNO and IT, Rapport BIPM-2010/03, 16 pp
  • Lewandowski W., Tisserand L., Relative characterization of GNSS receiver delays for GPS and GLONASS C/A codes in the L1 frequency band at the OP, SU, PTB and AOS, Rapport BIPM-2010/04, 40 pp
  • Panfilo G., Parker T.E., A theoretical and experimental analysis of frequency transfer uncertainty, including frequency transfer into TAI, Metrologia, 2010, 47(5), 552-560
  • Petit G., Luzum B., The IERS Conventions (2010), Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2010, 13,


  • Arias E.F., Panfilo G., International time scales at the BIPM: impact and applications, Proc. 14th International Metrology Congress, Paris, 2009, CD-Rom
  • Lewandowski W., Arias E.F., Nawrocki J., Nogas P., Use of GLONASS for international time keeping, Proc. Inst. Appl. Astron., (Ed. Nauka, St Petersburg), 2009, 20, 358-366