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 SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI) [8th edition, 2006; updated in 2014]
 Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI, and units based on fundamental constants (contd.) SI Brochure, from Section 4.1

Table 6 includes the traditional units of time and angle. It also contains the hectare, the litre, and the tonne, which are all in common everyday use throughout the world, and which differ from the corresponding coherent SI unit by an integer power of ten. The SI prefixes are used with several of these units, but not with the units of time.

Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units

Quantity Name of unit Symbol for unit Value in SI units
time minute min 1 min = 60 s
hour (a) h 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s
day d 1 d = 24 h = 86 400 s
plane angle degree (b,c) ° 1° = (/180) rad
minute ' 1' = (1/60)° = (/10 800) rad
second (d) '' 1'' = (1/60)' = (/648 000) rad
area hectare (e) ha 1 ha = 1 hm2 = 104 m2
volume litre (f) L, l 1 L = 1 l = 1 dm3 = 103 cm3 = 10–3 m3
mass tonne (g) t 1 t = 103 kg
length astronomical unit (h) au 1 au = 149 597 870 700 m

 (a) The symbol of this unit is included in Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948). (b) ISO 80000-3:2006 recommends that the degree be divided decimally rather than using the minute and the second. For navigation and surveying, however, the minute has the advantage that one minute of latitude on the surface of the Earth corresponds (approximately) to one nautical mile (defined in Table 8). (c) The gon (or grad, where grad is an alternative name for the gon) is an alternative unit of plane angle to the degree, defined as (/200) rad. Thus there are 100 gon in a right angle. The potential value of the gon in navigation is that because the distance from the pole to the equator of the Earth is approximately 10 000 km, 1 km on the surface of the Earth subtends an angle of one centigon at the centre of the Earth. However the gon is rarely used. (d) For applications in astronomy, small angles are measured in arcseconds (i.e. seconds of plane angle), denoted by the symbol as or ''; also used are milliarcseconds, microarcseconds, and picoarcseconds, denoted by the symbols mas, µas, and pas, respectively, where arcsecond is an alternative name for second of plane angle. (e) The unit hectare, and its symbol ha, were adopted by the CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41). The hectare is used to express land area. (f) The litre, and the symbol lower-case l, were adopted by the CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41). The alternative symbol, capital L, was adopted by the 16th CGPM (1979, Resolution 6) in order to avoid the risk of confusion between the letter l (el) and the numeral 1 (one). (g) The tonne, and its symbol t, were adopted by the CIPM in 1879 (PV, 1879, 41). In English speaking countries this unit is usually called "metric ton". (h) The astronomical unit of length was redefined by the XXVIII General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (Resolution B2, 2012).

[ updated 2014 ]

We are pleased to present the updated (2014) 8th edition of the SI Brochure, which defines and presents the Système International d'Unités, the SI (known in English as the International System of Units).

### Chapter 3: Decimal multiples and submultiples of SI units

• SI prefixes
•  Factor Name Symbol Factor Name Symbol 101 deca da 10–1 deci d 102 hecto h 10–2 centi c 103 kilo k 10–3 milli m 106 mega M 10–6 micro µ 109 giga G 10–9 nano n 1012 tera T 10–12 pico p 1015 peta P 10–15 femto f 1018 exa E 10–18 atto a 1021 zetta Z 10–21 zepto z 1024 yotta Y 10–24 yocto y
• The kilogram

### Chapter 5: Writing unit symbols and names, and expressing the values of quantities

General principles for the writing of unit symbols and numbers were first given by the 9th CGPM (1948, Resolution 7). These were subsequently elaborated by ISO, IEC, and other international bodies. As a consequence, there now exists a general consensus on how unit symbols and names, including prefix symbols and names, as well as quantity symbols should be written and used, and how the values of quantities should be expressed. Compliance with these rules and style conventions, the most important of which are presented in this chapter, supports the readability of scientific and technical papers.

### Appendix 1: Decisions of the CGPM and the CIPM

This appendix lists those decisions of the CGPM and the CIPM that bear directly upon definitions of the units of the SI, prefixes defined for use as part of the SI, and conventions for the writing of unit symbols and numbers. It is not a complete list of CGPM and CIPM decisions. For a complete list, reference must be made to the BIPM website, successive volumes of the Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CR) and Procès-Verbaux des Séances du Comité International des Poids et Mesures (PV) or, for recent decisions, to Metrologia.

Since the SI is not a static convention, but evolves following developments in the science of measurement, some decisions have been abrogated or modified; others have been clarified by additions. In the SI Brochure, a number of notes have been added by the BIPM to make the text more understandable; they do not form part of the original text.

In the printed brochure, the decisions of the CGPM and CIPM are listed in strict chronological order in order to preserve the continuity with which they were taken. However in order to make it easy to locate decisions related to particular topics a table of contents is also provided, ordered by subject:

### Appendix 3: Units for photochemical and photobiological quantities

Optical radiation is able to cause chemical changes in certain living or non-living materials: this property is called actinism, and radiation capable of causing such changes is referred to as actinic radiation. Actinic radiation has the fundamental characteristic that, at the molecular level, one photon interacts with one molecule to alter or break the molecule into new molecular species. It is therefore possible to define specific photochemical or photobiological quantities in terms of the result of optical radiation on the associated chemical or biological receptors.

In the field of metrology, the only photobiological quantity which has been formally defined for measurement in the SI is for the interaction of light with the human eye in vision. An SI base unit, the candela, has been defined for this important photobiological quantity. Several other photometric quantities with units derived from the candela have also been defined (such as the lumen and the lux, see Table 3 in Chapter 2).

 The definition of photometric quantities and units can be found in the International Lighting Vocabulary (CIE) or in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEC).